Plum Judy Butterfly: Identification, Life Cycle, and Behavior

This article will guide you through everything you need to know about Plum Judy Butterfly.

From its classification to its unique behaviors, to its life cycle and primary threats, all aspects will be thoroughly covered.

Equip yourself with this enriching knowledge about this beautiful creature.

Plum Judy Butterfly (Abisara echerius)

What is the Classification of Plum Judy Butterfly?

The Plum Judy Butterfly, scientifically known as Abisara echerius, falls under the order Lepidoptera, within the realm of arthropod classification.

Lepidoptera, encompassing butterflies and moths, is known for its members’ beautifully scaled wings. As part of the family Riodinidae, the Plum Judy butterfly stands out for its unique metallic colors and distinctive wing pattern.

While the family Riodinidae comprises nearly 1,500 species, our focus, Abisara echerius, is robustly classified under the genus Abisara or the Punches and Judies.

These butterflies are often seen as the glittering jewels of the insect world. Recognizing the butterfly’s classification is fundamental as it sheds light on its distinct behavior and life cycle, something that we will delve more deeply into later.

What is the Distribution of Plum Judy Butterfly?

The Plum Judy Butterfly, scientifically known as the Abisara echerius, holds a rather wide distribution across the globe.

Mostly, these butterflies are spotted dwelling in the tropical regions. They’re spread across various regions in Africa, Asia and Australia.

In Asia, you are likely to spot the Plum Judy Butterfly ubiquitously from the Western Ghats of India to Sri Lanka.

Furthermore, its population extends to the dense forests of Southeast Asia, covering countries like Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, and the Philippines. These butterflies are considered natives of these Asian regions.

The enigma continues on the world’s smallest continent, Australia. Plum Judy Butterflies are often seen dancing around in the northern region of Queensland in Australia, adding to the variety of local biodiversity.

Lastly, move your lens to Africa. Here, the highest density of their population is sprinkled across sub-Saharan Africa, where the tropical climate and the flora provide a perfect habitat for these creatures.

It’s amazing to realize how this relatively small, yet exuberant butterfly species, exists across such a wide geographical range.

These butterflies, the inhabitants of various continents, contribute to the diverse global biodiversity in their own unique, colorful ways.

What are the Main Characteristics of the Plum Judy Butterfly?

The hallmark trait of Plum Judy butterflies is their distinctive coloration. They possess a deep, almost black upper color while the under-surface appears dull brown.

The forewings display an eye-catching series of orange or copper-colored bands and spots, adding to the overall appeal.

  • Their wingspan, typically around 1.57 to 2.3 inches (or 4-6 centimeters), makes them considered a medium-sized butterfly species.

Particularly striking is the butterfly’s tail-like extension on their hind-wings. This unique feature, coupled with their characteristic flight pattern, often leads them to be mistaken for swallowtail butterflies.

Don’t be fooled by this. The Plum Judy is a unique butterfly in its own right.

Two silver spots located on the underside of their hind-wing is another telltale sign of a Plum Judy. Like the moon in the night sky, these spots stand out against the dark brown base color.

On closer inspection, you’ll find that the Plum Judy has six legs, a common trait among butterflies.

Yet, in their case, the first pair is reduced in size––a distinguishing feature of the Lycaenidae family. Besides, they also boast a pair of clubbed antennae, a telltale trait of butterflies.

Their larvae are usually brownish in color with a series of vertical stripes, blending well with the surroundings. A likely tactic to evade predators.

Remember, identifying a Plum Judy butterfly requires an observant eye. Their myriad individual traits come together to form a unique identity that sets them apart in the insect realm.

How to Identify Male and Female Plum Judy Butterfly?

Identifying the male and female of the Plum Judy Butterfly species can be quite an intriguing task.

However, with some guiding traits, you will soon become efficient at distinguishing the sexes. The body structure, wing color, and behavioral differences are key when studying these elegant insects.

Body Structure: Typically, males of this species display smaller bodies compared to female counterparts. When observed from a side, a male plum Judy carries a more streamlined shape. Meanwhile, the female exhibits a slightly rounded abdomen — a feature tied to her reproductive role.

Wing Color: Both sexes display an attractive blackish-brown color on the wings. However, there’s a subtlety to watch for. Males may exhibit a more vibrant hue compared to the somewhat duller shade on female wings.

Behavioral Differences: Conduct an observation on feeding habits. Generally, males frequently visit flowers for nectar across mornings and early afternoons. On the contrary, you rarely see females indulging in such behavior.

Here’s a tabulated summary of the prominent differences:

Feature Male Female
Body Shape Streamlined Rounder abdomen
Wing Color Vibrant blackish-brown Duller blackish-brown
Behavior Active in the morning till early afternoon Less frequently seen on flowers

Remember these pointers. This information should make distinguishing between male and female Plum Judy butterflies a more manageable task.

Enjoy the natural diversity and beauty these creatures offer in your observations!

What is the Mating Ritual of Plum Judy Butterfly?

Plum Judy butterflies engage in an intriguing mating ritual which is synonymous with many butterfly species. The ritual is essentially a beautiful dance that unfolds in the air.

You will see a male Plum Judy butterfly, quicker and smaller, take to the skies in pursuit of a female, who is generally larger and slower.

The male surrounds his desired mate, fluttering around her in order to grab her attention. His aim? To display strength and agility, proving to be the worthiest suitor compared to any other male butterfly.

The female, discerning in her choosing, assesses his ability, punctuating the air with her flight pattern.

When the female Plum Judy butterfly has seen enough, she rests on a leaf or flower and the male butterfly joins her. If the female is accepting of the male, they mate and then part.

This mating ritual isn’t just for show, mutations or physical abnormalities can mean a male is not able to perform the ritual to its full extent.

It’s nature’s way of ensuring that only the strongest genes are passed down to the next generation.

So, next time you see two Plum Judy butterflies, spiraling in the sky, know you’re experiencing an age-old dance of attraction and discernment.

Just note that their mating ritual might seem lengthy to us, but on average, it lasts just a few minutes for them.

What Does the Caterpillar of Plum Judy Butterfly Look Like?

The caterpillar of the Plum Judy butterfly is an enchanting sight to behold. It has a vibrant green body, marked by two yellow-crested lines running longitudinally along its sides.

This shade is an effective measure for the creature to camouflage perfectly amidst the green foliage.

The caterpillar’s length measures typically about 1.6 inches (4 cm). It sports an oblique yellow mark across each segment, like a series of uniformed patterns.

This visually breaks up the body, creating an almost artistic illusion.

In terms of texture, the skin of the caterpillar resembles corrugated paper. This attribute, along with its coloration, makes it fairly hard for predation, subtly blending into the green foliage of its surroundings.

Its head exhibits a darker hue of green compared to its body. You’ll notice it’s slightly compressed and tucked into the thorax.

This retractable head is a classic trait, ensuring this caterpillar is prepared to draw back into defensive mode if threatened.

Lastly, you might be surprised that the Plum Judy caterpillar bears a unique trait. When disturbed, it extrudes a pair of tentacle-like organs from its head.

Acting much like a uniquely crafted defence system, these not only startle predators but also releases a foul smell, keeping potential threats at bay.

Overall, the Plum Judy caterpillar bears a distinctive look, its unique markings and behaviors acting as a testament to nature’s enchanting diversity.

What is the Life Cycle of Plum Judy Butterfly?

Understanding the life cycle of a Plum Judy butterfly is quite fascinating. Like any butterfly, Plum Judys go through four key stages: eggcaterpillarpupa, and the adult butterfly.

First stage: Egg The journey starts when a female Plum Judy lays her eggs on the leaves of a host plant. These tiny spherical eggs are white to light green and measure about 1mm in diameter.

Second stage: Caterpillar (Larva) The eggs soon hatch into caterpillars. The caterpillar spends its days eating, protruding with bright colors of yellow and black stripes, maximizing its size up to 1.5 inches. As it grows, it will shed its skin several times.

Third stage: Pupa (Chrysalis) Once fully grown, the caterpillar forms a cocoon around itself, known as a chrysalis. Within this shell, the most remarkable transformation takes place over 10-15 days: the caterpillar rearranges its cells to become a butterfly.

Final stage: Adult Butterfly The adult butterfly emerges, dries its wings, and starts its life of about 20-40 days focusing mostly on reproduction.

The Plum Judy’s life cycle is like a spellbinding story of transformation, repeating this cycle again and again, ensuring the continuation of the species.

What Is the Average Life Expectancy of a Plum Judy Butterfly?

Upon transitioning into a fully mature adult, a Plum Judy butterfly has a life expectancy that typically ranges from 14 to 30 days.

This period, though seemingly short, is full of activity and highly critical for the species’ survival and proliferation.

Interestingly, the Plum Judy’s entire lifespan, from egg to adult, lasts around 5 to 6 weeks. This includes the egg period of 4 days, the larval stage of 18-20 days, and the pupal stage of about 10 days. Within this timeframe, it significantly contributes to the ecosystem and completes its mating cycle often more than once.

However, it’s crucial to note that these values can fluctify depending on specific factors. Environmental conditions, availability of food, and predator activity primarily influence the lifespan of a Plum Judy butterfly.

While the butterfly’s life might seem brief, remember every stage they go through beforehand. The courage it takes to survive mother nature’s challenges, striving diligently in the face of adversity to ensure the next generation, illuminates in its ephemeral existence.

What Does the Diet of a Plum Judy Butterfly Consist Of?

Plum Judy butterflies, like many other butterfly species, primarily feed on nectar from flowers. Their caterpillars, however, have a different diet.

Caterpillars feed mainly on leaves of specific plants conducive to their survival and growth.

To supply the necessary energy for flight, adult Plum Judy butterflies sip nectar from various flowers. Their long, straw-like mouthparts called proboscis are specially designed for this.

They enjoy flowers of Asystasia gangetica species, also known as Chinese violet, and Lantana camara, commonly referred to as wild sage. They can cover large distances just to find these nectar sources.

The caterpillars of Plum Judy butterflies are herbivores. Their preferred food is leaves, specifically those of plants belonging to the family Acanthaceae.

Notably, the plant Ruellia tuberosa, also known as minnieroot, is a common host for Plum Judy caterpillars. The caterpillars possess sharp mandibles to chop and eat the leaves.

Remember, a Plum Judy butterfly’s diet is essential to its life cycle and survival. Understanding this, can bring us closer to protecting and preserving their species.

Which Plants Serve as the Primary Hosts for Plum Judy Butterfly?

The Plum Judy butterfly, a striking tropical species, builds its life around a select few host plants. These plants, instrumental to the survival of the butterfly, are sought out by females for their egg-laying.

Maesa Chisia and Maesa Indica, commonly found in India and other South Asian countries, top the list. Renowned for their lush greenery and hardiness, they provide the perfect environment for the caterpillars to grow.

Delving deeper, caterpillars of the Plum Judy butterfly exhibit a preference for Scurrula Parasitica. This is a mistletoe species that grows on several different host trees.

The butterfly is so intimately linked to this plant, the decline in mistletoe populations correspondingly impacts Plum Judy numbers.

Moreover, the relationship extends beyond food. Serving as camouflage, Maesa Chisia and Maesa Indica offer a protective habitat against predators.

The green of the leaves blend with the caterpillar’s color, offering a sort of invisibility, a key survival strategy.

In conclusion, Maesa ChisiaMaesa Indica, and Scurrula Parasitica serve as primary hosts. The symbiotic relationship nurtures the Plum Judy at each stage, right from egg, caterpillar, to the stunning butterfly.

As this showcases, in the delicate balance of nature, the fate of a species is often entwined with the plants that nourish it.

What are the Unique Mimicry Behaviors in Plum Judy Butterfly?

One of the hallmark traits of the Plum Judy butterfly is its distinct, eye-catching mimicry behavior. This is observed primarily when these butterflies are under threat.

It is a survival technique where the butterfly adopts the appearance or behavior of a less palatable species to deceive potential predators.

For instance, when in flight, a Plum Judy might twist and turn erratically. This erratic flight pattern mimics that of other species that are unappetizing or harmful to predators.

The distinctive jet-black wings with metallic blue-green spots also serve as a mimicry mechanism. This coloration closely resembles that of toxic butterfly species, giving the false impression that the Plum Judy is inedible.

Furthermore, when the Plum Judy butterfly is resting, its closed wings reveal a dull brown underside. This good natural camouflage allows the butterfly to blend in with its surroundings – be it foliage or tree bark.

Infused with such fascinating mimicry techniques, the Plum Judy butterfly manages to adeptly stay one step ahead of its predators. They truly are masters of deception in the insect world.

What Are the Main Threats to Plum Judy Butterfly Populations?

The Plum Judy butterfly, or Abisara echerius, though common, has threats looming over its existence.

Habitat loss is the primary concern for these butterflies. Widespread deforestation, urban development, and agricultural expansion are the chief culprits.

These activities destroy the native plants that Plum Judy caterpillars rely on for food and reduce the overall habitat available for the butterflies.

  • Overuse of pesticides and herbicides also spell bad news for Plum Judy populations. These chemicals can directly kill the butterflies or destroy their food sources, leading to a decline in population numbers.
  • Climate change is another serious threat. Rising temperatures can disrupt the delicate lifecycle of the butterfly, potentially causing population declines or even local extinctions.

Invasive species, both plants and predators, also pose a significant threat.

  • Invasive plant species can outcompete native host plants, reducing the food available for Plum Judy caterpillars.
  • Non-native predators can feed on the butterflies and their caterpillars, further driving down population numbers.

In conclusion, the Plum Judy butterfly faces numerous threats, the primary ones being habitat loss, overuse of pesticides and herbicides, climate change, and the presence of invasive species.

Efforts must be made to mitigate these threats and conserve this unique species.


We hope this article has increased your understanding of the Plum Judy butterfly’s unique characteristics, life cycle, and behaviors.

With the information provided, we believe you now have a greater appreciation of this fascinating creature.

Feel free to share your thoughts and comments below.

Butterflies   Updated: September 25, 2023
avatar Welcome to Insectic, a blog to learn about insects and bugs. I'm Richard, and I've created this website to share my experience, knowledge, and passion with others.

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