Small Blue Butterfly: Identification, Life Cycle, and Behavior

Look closely, and you’ll discover a microcosm in the world of the Small Blue Butterfly.

This guide unveils the captivating life cycle, behavior, and identifying markers of this beautiful creature.

Dive in and become familiar with a world that is as breathtaking as it is minute.

Small Blue butterfly

What is the Classification of Small Blue Butterfly?

The Small Blue Butterfly, scientifically known as Cupido minimus, holds a distinctive position in the wide, winged world of Lepidoptera.

As part of the family ‘Lycaenidae’, it sits amongst some of the most vibrant butterflies. The ‘Lycaenidae’ family is known for its hearty diversity, housing over 6,000 species worldwide.

In terms of genus, the Small Blue Butterfly falls under ‘Cupido’. This genus is characterised by small, dimly colored butterflies renowned for their finesse and delicate flight.

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Lycaenidae
Genus: Cupido
Species: C. minimus

Indeed, the Small Blue Butterfly’s identity in the animal kingdom is reflective of its unique traits.

Its classification elucidates not just its biological identity but also its lively, vibrant character.

What is the Distribution of Small Blue Butterfly?

The Small Blue Butterfly, scientifically known as Cupido minimus, is widely distributed across the globe.

They predominantly inhabit areas of Europe, extending all the way from Scandinavia in northern Europe to Spain in southern Europe.

You’ll also find them buzzing plentifully in parts of Asia, including Iran and Japan.

In the heart of Europe, these petite beauties prefer chalk and limestone grasslands. In the UK, their presence is more sporadic, predominantly found in southern England.

They seem to relish the rocky Scottish terrains too. Their habitat tends to be more localized and varied across global latitudes.

Heading down under to Australia, the Small Blue exhibits the same affinity for grasslands, but also happens to appreciate the balmy charm of coastal regions.

They’ve also been sighted fluttering within sparse forest settings.

Don’t be surprised if you encounter the Small Blue in the Americas, especially North America. However, do keep in mind that this species has a knack for specific habitats like meadows and grasslands.

They avoid wooded or dense areas, preferring the sunshine and clearings.

So, if you’re going on a Small Blue hunt, your best bets are the sunny meadows of Europe, the grasslands of Asia, the coasts of Australia, or the back gardens of North America. Good luck!

What are the Main Characteristics of the Small Blue Butterfly?

The Small Blue Butterfly is indeed a fascinating creature. As its name suggests, it is one of the tiniest butterflies, typically measuring between 3/4 inch (1.9 cm) to 1 inch (2.54 cm) when its wings are fully extended.

The top side of their wings boasts a deep blue, whereas the underwings are silvery-gray with tiny black dots distributed on them.

There are several ways to better recognize this unique species:

  • Size: Being the UK’s smallest butterfly species, adults reach a maximum size of 1 inch (2.54 cm).
  • Color: The beautiful azure blue topside of males’ wings is hard to miss. In contrast, females possess a more brownish hue with a tint of blue near the body.
  • Wing patterns: Underneath, both genders exhibit light-grey wings featuring small black spots.

Although size and color seem to be the most recognizable traits, the butterfly’s habitat is another noticeable characteristic.

They tend to inhabit sheltered spots, specifically on calcareous grasslands.

Its minutiae size, distinctive color, and pacific habitat successfully sketch the main characteristics of the Small Blue Butterfly.

Thus, by noting these properties, you can effortlessly identify and marvel at this charming species in nature.

How to Identify Male and Female Small Blue Butterfly?

Identifying the sexes of a Small Blue Butterfly is straightforward due to their notable differing characteristics.

Male Small Blue Butterflies exhibit a bright silvery-blue hue on the upper part of their wings, making them easily distinguishable. They display a brighter color to attract females.

In contrast, the Female Small Blue Butterfly manifests a darker or dusky-blue coloring, often with noticeable spots or smudges.

Females, usually larger in size, tend to have a broader wingspan than males, measuring between 16-27mm (0.6-1.06 inches).

The under-surface of both sexes is more uniform, with a light grayish-blue color decorated with small black dots. This side is often visible when the butterfly is at rest. To sum up:

  • Male: Silvery-blue wings, brighter color
  • Female: Dusky-blue wings, noticeable spots, larger size

Look closely and you can see these subtle but distinct differences. Males and females in the Small Blue species clearly showcase that size, color, and pattern play an important role in sex identification.

What is the Mating Ritual of Small Blue Butterfly?

Like other butterflies, the Small Blue Butterfly has a unique and fascinating mating ritual.

The ritual typically takes place in warm, sunny conditions, often in the early afternoon when temperatures are suitably high.

Males establish territories on patches of Kidney Vetch, their primary larval food plant, and actively fly around these areas seeking females to mate with.

Once a male locates a potential mate, he performs an impressive display of flight patterns and maneuvers.

These include chasing, circling, and hovering over the female to showcase his charming abilities. This isn’t just for show – it’s an important part of their communication and courtship behavior.

Females react to these mating tactics by displaying their acceptance or rejection. An accepting female would generally stop, close her wings, and pair up with the male for successful mating.

Unlike other species where the female might fly off to lay her eggs immediately after mating, the female Small Blue often continues to mate with the same male multiple times in a short period.

This mating process continues until dusk. Afterward, the butterflies retreat to roost for the night. Keep in mind, these mating rituals are weather-dependent.

If it’s too cold, cloudy, or rainy, the Small Blue Butterfly will hold off on its mating ritual until conditions improve.

Understanding these mating rituals not only speaks to their fascinating behavior but also aids in conservation efforts to protect these delicate creatures from decline.

What Does the Caterpillar of Small Blue Butterfly Look Like?

The caterpillar of a Small Blue Butterfly is a unique creature that stands out due to its peculiar features. It paints a very humble and obscure picture. Nonetheless, it’s an understated beauty.


Measured in less than 1 inch (approximately 10-12mm), the caterpillar is quite small. Coinciding with its name, ‘Small Blue Butterfly’, the caterpillar also maintains a miniature silhouette.

This size allows it to blend incredibly well with its environment, a successful survival strategy employed against predators.


One of the main characteristics you’ll recognize is its coloration. The caterpillar of the Small Blue Butterfly has a pale green body.

This color enables it to meld seamlessly with the greenish surrounding foliage and flowers, acting as a fantastic natural camouflage.

Shape and Texture

It has a tapered body that narrows at both ends. The caterpillar is also covered with fine hairs.

These features tend to give it an elongated and bushy look, almost like a small brush that would go unnoticed if not observed closely.

Observing and locating this tiny creature can be a delightful challenge for nature enthusiasts.

It serves as a reminder of how remarkably diverse, intricate, and fascinating our ecosystem is, especially if we’re willing to zoom in and explore the minutiae of life.

What is the Life Cycle of Small Blue Butterfly?

The life cycle of the Small Blue Butterfly, Cupido minimus, is fascinating and unique. It’s a yearly cycle that takes place between spring and autumn.

Below, we dive into the intricate details of each stage of this insect’s life.

The journey begins when females lay their eggs on or near the budding flower heads of Kidney Vetch, their primary host plant.

These eggs are incredibly small, about 0.5 mm in diameter. Once laid, they commence their journey into the next phase of life.

Larvae, also known as caterpillars, emerge after around two weeks. They are initially 1.5 mm long and green, blending perfectly into the surrounding foliage.

As they grow, they develop a dark line running the length of their body. They feed on the Kidney Vetch’s developing seed pods, taking about 3-4 weeks to fully mature.

The next stage in the life cycle of the Small Blue Butterfly is the pupa stage. At this stage, our creature resembles a tiny green sausage.

Securely tucked within the plant’s seed pods, pupation takes approximately 2 weeks. When ready, the adult butterfly emerges in a slow, patient process.

The final stage of the life cycle is the adult butterfly. Small Blue’s emerge as butterflies usually between late May and early June.

They lead a brief but vibrant life, their main purpose being to mate and continue their lineage.

Realize how the life cycle of the Small Blue Butterfly is a symphony. A perfectly timed dance between the creature and its environment, where timing is everything.

What Is the Average Life Expectancy of a Small Blue Butterfly?

The life expectancy of a Small Blue Butterfly is fleeting, yet fascinating. Typically, they only live for about a week after reaching their adult form.

This is an oft-recurring pattern in many butterfly species; their lifetime heavily concentrated within their larval and pupal stages, with the adult stage being the climax of their existence.

It is crucial to keep in mind that this span greatly hinges on external conditions. Factors such as weather, availability of food, and exposure to predators can considerably shorten or lengthen this duration.

For instance, extreme weather conditions, such as heavy rain or severe drought, can negatively impact their lifespan. Also, a scarcity of nectar, their primary food source, can dramatically affect their survival.

Nevertheless, during optimal conditions, they might get to flutter their wings in the wild for up to two weeks. This might seem short, but for such a tiny creature, every day is packed with life’s hustle and bustle.

Interesting, isn’t it? The brief adult life of the Small Blue Butterfly is packed full of activity. It could be a gentle reminder for us to make the most of each day, just like these small wonders of nature do.

What Does the Diet of a Small Blue Butterfly Consist Of?

Small Blue Butterflies, also scientifically known as Cupido minimus, have a diet that’s predominantly nectar-based.

Adult butterflies primarily feed on a diversity of flower nectar and plant sap that they encounter.

Ascending to Adulthood:

  • The butterfly, during its caterpillar stage, indulges itself in Kidney Vetch plant (Anthyllis vulneraria).
  • These plants provide the necessary nutrients for the caterpillar to molt into a pupa.

Aphid Secrets:

Another unusual yet interesting aspect of their diet is the consumption of honeydew produced by aphids, tiny insects that extract juice from plants.

This is quite fascinating as it isn’t typically common for most other butterflies.

This nectar-based, and somewhat distinctive, dietary preferences have shaped the Small Blue Butterfly and their behavior fascinatingly.

The diet isn’t only vital for their survival, but it also directly influences their lifecycle, mating rituals, and unique behaviors.

Careful observations of the Small Blue Butterfly’s dietary habits can provide us valuable details about their distribution, population status, and overall health.

The Small Blue Butterfly, though tiny in size, is a remarkable creature indeed, living life richly detailed and surprisingly complex.

Which Plants Serve as the Primary Hosts for Small Blue Butterfly?

The Small Blue Butterfly is quite selective when it comes to its host plants. Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria) mainly serves as the primary host for this tiny insect.

  • The Small Blue Butterfly, attracted to the sunny disposition and yellow coloring of Kidney Vetch, usually lay their eggs on these plants.
  • The larval stage of the Small Blue butterfly feeds on the flower heads of this plant, particularly the seeds.

Apart from Kidney Vetch, other species of plants can also occasionally act as host plants. These include Coronilla varia, commonly known as Crown Vetch, and Medicago sativa, or Alfalfa.

However, the Kidney Vetch is undoubtedly the main food source for the Small Blue Butterfly’s caterpillar stage.

With limited host plants, the habitat of the Small Blue Butterfly is quite specific, often restricted to limestone grassland habitats.

What are the Unique Mimicry Behaviors in Small Blue Butterfly?

In the world of insects, there is a phenomenon known as mimicry, and the Small Blue Butterfly (Cupido minimus) is no exception.

These delightful creatures employ mimicry as a method of survival.

One intriguing form of mimicry exhibited by Small Blue butterflies involves masking their scent. They produce odors similar to specific plants or even ants, confusing their predators.

This tactic makes them less appealing to hunting insectivores who rely on such scents to track their prey.

On another interesting note, the caterpillars of Small Blue Butterflies use a different strategy of mimicry. They imitate the appearance and even movement of certain species of ants.

The predators mistake these tiny caterpillars for the ants, allowing the caterpillars to thrive within ant colonies and feed on their resources unnoticed.

Furthermore, Small Blue caterpillars will mimic ants’ sounds. This deceptive communication allows the caterpillars to coexist in ant colonies, further guaranteeing their protection from predators.

To summarize, the Small Blue Butterfly utilizes sophisticated mimicry behaviors on two fronts: scent masking and ant mimicking.

These tactics not only ensure their survival but also give us a fascinating insight into the survival strategies within the insect kingdom.

What Are the Main Threats to Small Blue Butterfly Populations?

It’s undeniable that the small blue butterfly populations are facing a serious risk of decline. The major threats to their survival come from habitat lossclimate change, and the introduction of invasive species.

Habitat loss, in particular, proves a significant threat. Many of the sites that small blue butterflies call home are being destroyed due to human activity.

Urban development, changes in agricultural practices, and degradation due to neglect are all contributing to the shrinking number of suitable habitats.

Climate change is also a leading cause of concern. Small blue butterflies are sensitive to changes in their environment. Rising temperatures, unpredictable weather patterns, and the altered timing of the seasons are drastically impacting their life cycle.

Lastly, certain invasive species pose a threat. Non-native species can sometimes outcompete small blue butterflies for resources, resulting in a dwindled population.

Hence, it’s of utmost importance that we take serious note of these threats and work towards mitigating them, to ensure the survival of this beautiful creature.

This involves protecting current habitats, managing and restoring degraded ones, incorporating climate-smart strategies, and controlling invasive species.

The small blue butterfly, like all nature, is part of our shared world, and it is our responsibility to safeguard its existence.


In summary, the small blue butterfly is a fascinating creature with unique behaviors and characteristics.

Understanding its life cycle, diet, and threats it faces can promote a greater appreciation for these petite insects.

Please share your thoughts on small blue butterflies in the comments below!

Butterflies   Updated: September 27, 2023
avatar Welcome to Insectic, a blog to learn about insects and bugs. I'm Richard, and I've created this website to share my experience, knowledge, and passion with others.

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