Blue Moon Butterfly: Identification, Life Cycle, and Behavior

In this article, you’ll delve deep into the intriguing world of the Blue Moon Butterfly, one of nature’s most exquisite creatures.

You’ll discover its unique attributes, from its stunning physical characteristics to its fascinating behaviors.

Gain insight into their life cycle, mating rituals and the threats they face in their existence.

Common Eggfly butterfly

What is the Classification of Blue Moon Butterfly?

The Blue Moon Butterfly, also known as the Great Eggfly or more scientifically, Hypolimnas bolina, belongs to the Nymphalidae family.

This family is renowned for its large, brightly colored species. It falls within the Lepidoptera order, which encompasses all moth and butterfly species.

Categorized in the Hypolimnas genus, the Blue Moon Butterfly has gained recognition for its distinct coloring and life habits, setting it apart from its peers.

Within the Hypolimnas genus, the bolina species is easily distinguishable due to its striking blue pigmentation, hence its common name.

Despite the fact that butterflies generally are not sectioned into subspecies, there exist three recognized forms of the Blue Moon Butterfly.

These are found primarily determined by location and slight variations in coloring: Hypolimnas bolina bolinaHypolimnas bolina jacintha, and Hypolimnas bolina nerina.

This amazingly classified Blue Moon Butterfly exemplifies the diversity and variety within the insect world, particularly within the Lepidoptera order and Nymphalidae family.

With its bold color and unique life habits, it serves as a prime example of the intricacies of nature’s classification system.

What is the Distribution of Blue Moon Butterfly?

The Blue Moon Butterfly, known scientifically as Hypolimnas bolina, enjoys a broad distribution.

Favored by tropical and sub-tropical regions, you’ll find this butterfly boasting its beauty in a wide spectrum of locations.

In Asia, they are prevalent in countries such as India, China, and Japan. Its reach extends as far as Madagascar and the coastal regions of Africa.

However, the Blue Moon’s dominion does not end there.

Its magnificence also graces several archipelagos, namely the Solomons, New Hebrides, and Samoa.

Travel to Australia’s far north and New Zealand’s North Island and you are likely to encounter this striking specimen.

Despite their vast distribution, Hypolimnas bolina are most abundant in Southeast Asia and Australasia.

It is speculated their impressive dispersal ability may be an evolutionary response to parasitic infections. Nonetheless, their bold aesthetics are a universal welcome across the span of their habitat.

What are the Main Characteristics of the Blue Moon Butterfly?

Let’s set our sights on the Blue Moon Butterfly, an enchanting inhabitant of the insect realm. One of the butterfly’s standout features is, as the name suggests, its beautiful blue color.

This is more visible in males, while females flaunt a less vibrant, often brownish, hue.

Its size is rather striking too. Hypolimnas bolina, as it is scientifically termed, boasts a wingspan between 3.7-4.1 inches (95-105 mm).

You’ll notice the broad, irregularly shaped wings which characterize it.

Not only are its characteristics captivating visually, but functionally too. Their forewings are elongated with slightly scalloped edges.

The hindwings, on the other hand, might catch your eye with their three small, distinct tails.

Interestingly, the color patterns of the Blue Moon Butterfly might differ. These unique patterns, which are more accentuated on the underside of the wings, help it blend into its environment.

Underneath, you’ll see a rather pleasant potpourri of colors, with white, black and blue interspersed in an irregular pattern.

The Blue Moon Butterfly also sports a set of distinct eyespots on both sets of wings, primarily for warding off predators.

While a mere glance might not reveal it, they possess clubbed antennae, a helpful feature for identifying butterfly species.

In short, the Blue Moon Butterfly’s otherworldly beauty is attributed to its striking color, distinct patterns, unique wing shape, protective eyespots, and those intriguing clubbed antennae.

It’s no wonder that observing this species can be quite an enthralling experience.

How to Identify Male and Female Blue Moon Butterfly?

In the world of Blue Moon Butterflies, distinguishing between males and females is quite straightforward.

Both sexes of this species come with their unique features which enable easy identification.

With a glance, these butterflies reveal their sexual differences:

  • Males – These creatures typically show a brighter, more vibrant blue color on their wings. Flip open the upper-side of male Blue Moon butterflies’ wings, you’ll be greeted by a striking, and shimmering iridescent blue. This is a characteristic not found in their female counterparts.
  • Females – Females on the other hand, exhibit more of a white or dull blue hue, a contrast to the flashy males. Moreover, female Blue Moon butterflies are generally larger in size compared to males.

Their wing patterns also differ. While both sexes feature black borders on their wings, the thickness varies. Males’ black borders are often thinner, giving more prominence to their blue color.

Females possess a thicker black border, texturing their less vibrant colors with a more solid border.

In simpler terms, if you’re a spectator of a Blue Moon butterfly whose wings are a sparkling blue, you’re most likely looking at a male.

On the other hand, if its color is relatively muted with a bolder, thicker border, it’s probably a female. While there is more to the butterfly’s identification than meets the eye, these give the basic identifiers you require.

What is the Mating Ritual of Blue Moon Butterfly?

The mating ritual of the Blue Moon Butterfly is quite the spectacle. Being polyandrous creatures, females often attract multiple suitors vying for her attention.

  • The Chasing Game: The ritual commences with a high-speed chase, as testosterone-charged males compete for her affections. The primed male-female pair then perform an enchanting courtship dance in mid-air.
  • Courtship Dance: They elegantly flutter around each other, their vibrant wings stirring the air. This ballet of grace and color isn’t just an aesthetic affair. It is the medium through which they communicate and gauge their compatibility.
  • Mating: Once the dance is complete, if the female is receptive and the male has showcased impressive efforts, the couple horizontally docks their bodies to mate. The meandering ritual can last up to a few hours.

This thrilling sequence is critical to the survival and evolution of the species. It ensures not only continuation of the individual genetic lines but also the greater strength and vitality of the entire Blue Moon population.

What Does the Caterpillar of Blue Moon Butterfly Look Like?

The caterpillar of a Blue Moon Butterfly, also known as Hypolimnas bolina, is an intriguingly unique sight to behold.

Its body is dotted with various shades of black, white, and green, providing a mesmerizing contrast against the foliage it typically devours.

What primarily sets this caterpillar apart from others is its elongated body shape, almost similar to a worm.

It’s relatively large, typically measuring up to 2 inches (about 5 cm) long, making it one of the larger caterpillar species.

As it matures, this caterpillar develops a series of bold, black and white rings wrapped around its body.

These high-contrast segments help break its visual outline, providing an extra element of camouflage from would-be predators.

In addition to its body coloration, this caterpillar’s head is notable for its ornaments. It supports two pairs of black ‘antennae’, one pair longer than the other and both tipped with white.

These antenna-like features aren’t just for show — they help the caterpillar sense its environment and locate potential food sources.

Identifying a Blue Moon Butterfly caterpillar isn’t too tricky. Look for key features, such as a bold color combination, distinctive body shape, and prominent ‘antennae’.

With these identifiers in mind, you’ll able to spot this incredible specimen in no time.

Finally, don’t forget the habitat of these critters. These caterpillars like to dwell in tropical and subtropical forests and grasslands.

So keep your eyes peeled if you ever find yourself exploring these locations!

What is the Life Cycle of Blue Moon Butterfly?

The life cycle of a Blue Moon Butterfly, similar to other species of butterflies, comprises four key stages: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa (chrysalis), and adult.

  • At the egg stage, the female butterfly lays tiny, spherical eggs on the leaves of the host plant, usually the plumbago or cordia. These eggs hatch within a few days, giving way to the larval stage.
  • This stage witnesses the emergence of the Blue Moon Butterfly caterpillar. This is an eating and growth stage. The caterpillar, which is black and spiky, eats voraciously, mostly feeding on the leaves of the host plant, while it grows to approximately 1.9 inches (5 centimeters) in length.
  • After the growth period, the caterpillar curls up and forms a protective casing around itself, beginning the pupa stage. This stage is a period of transformation. Inside the casing, the caterpillar metamorphosizes into a butterfly.
  • The term ‘Blue Moon’ makes sense when the adult butterfly finally emerges from the chrysalis after 1-2 weeks, unfurling its sky-blue wings and taking flight, marking the adult stage. This marks the completion of the life cycle.

From egg to adult, the entire life cycle of the Blue Moon Butterfly span about 1-2 months depending on the environmental conditions.

After becoming an adult, the butterfly mates, and the female lays eggs, effectively starting a new life cycle.

What Is the Average Life Expectancy of a Blue Moon Butterfly?

In the world of butterflies, life expectancy varies significantly depending on diverse factors. Gradually and with certainty, let’s delve into the life expectancy of the iconic Blue Moon Butterfly.

So, how long does a Blue Moon Butterfly typically live? The average life expectancy is around 7 to 20 days. That’s right, these captivating creatures have a shockingly short lifespan.

Adult Blue Moon Butterflies: They live up to around 7-10 days. In that short span, they mate, lay eggs and perform their most vital function – pollination.

Caterpillars to Chrysalis: The Blue Moon butterflies’ caterpillars and the pupal stage, or chrysalis they morph into before becoming butterflies, collectively live around 10 to 13 days.

You may find it surprising that these beautiful creatures have such brief lives. Still, they make the most of their fleeting days, adding vibrancy to our ecosystems.

Remember, the Blue Moon Butterfly does not waste any moment of its short, but intensely active life.

What Does the Diet of a Blue Moon Butterfly Consist Of?

The nourishment intake of the Blue Moon Butterfly, or the Hypolimnas bolina, revolves predominantly around floral nectar.

Primarily, their feeding habits incline toward various flowering plants, savoring the sweet nectar they produce.

As caterpillars, they exhibit a unique pattern of dietary preference. Specifically, they feed extensively on plants from the Urticaceae family, which includes common nettles.

Blue Moon Butterfly caterpillars graze on leaves and stems, consummating a wholesome plant-based diet. Importantly, the specific type of plant greatly influences their growth and survival.

Remember, the Blue Moon Butterflies are selective eaters, and their diet reflects their habitat’s unique biodiversity.

Flowering plants, nectar, and nettles, thereby, form the core dietary elements absorbed by the Blue Moon Butterfly throughout its life stages.

So, whether it’s a sweet treat from flowers or the crunchy munch of nettle leaves, they know how to savor the best from Mother Nature’s pantry.

Which Plants Serve as the Primary Hosts for Blue Moon Butterfly?

Interestingly, the Blue Moon Butterfly isn’t picky when it comes to its choice of host plants. They’re known to be polyphagous, a term indicating that they feed on various kinds of food.

For their survival and reproduction, both the caterpillars and the adult butterflies show a preference for certain plant species.

Citrus plants top the choice list for these insects. Whether it’s a lemon, lime, or orange tree, Blue Moon Butterflies find these absolutely irresistible.

Plumeria (or Frangipani), a plant known for its vibrant flowers, also grabs their attention. As a matter of fact, adult Blue Moons are often spotted fluttering around these colourful blooms in gardens.

Another favourite of theirs is the plant breed from Rutaceae family. Murraya, also known as the Orange Jasmine or Mock Orange, is a particular favourite.

The small, white, scented blossoms are a magnet for these strikingly blue butterflies.

For the Blue Moons that reside in and around the Pacific Islands, plants from the Solanaceae family prove to be attractive hosts.

These include tomatoes, potatoes, deadly nightshades – plants that are abundant in the region.

So, whether you spot a Blue Moon Butterfly on your citrus tree or see them swarming around your Plumeria, be assured – this is a common behavior.

They gravitate towards these plant species for their nectar, favourable conditions, and to lay their eggs.

What are the Unique Mimicry Behaviors in Blue Moon Butterfly?

One of the unique behaviors exhibited by Blue Moon Butterflies is their fascinating technique of mimicry. Using this tactic, they manage to deter or confuse potential predators.

Their predominant method is known as “Batesian mimicry”. This type of mimicry involves a harmless butterfly mimicking the warning signals of a harmful species.

This way, predators who have had experienced negative outcomes after attacking the harmful species, avoid the “harmless mimics”.

The Blue Moon Butterfly, specifically the females, possess a striking resemblance to the poisonous Danainae species.

Featuring similar color patterns, they trick predators into thinking they’re harmful. Their mimicry is so effective, the predator won’t be able to distinguish them apart.

This smart survival technique grants Blue Moon Butterflies a higher chance of survival. Mimicry in these butterflies is a testament to nature’s intriguing survival mechanisms.

What Are the Main Threats to Blue Moon Butterfly Populations?

Blue Moon Butterflies face several significant challenges today. Foremost among these is habitat loss due to urbanization, deforestation, and agriculture.

When their natural homes are destroyed, these beautiful creatures simply cannot survive.

Another concern is the use of pesticides. Often, pesticides intended for harmful insects also affect beneficial species such as the Blue Moon Butterfly.

Their larvae and eggs are particularly vulnerable to these chemicals.

The effects of climate change is another challenge. Changes in temperature and weather patterns can disrupt their lifecycles.

Unexpected seasonal variations can affect their migration and breeding patterns, leading to a decrease in population.

Finally, there are natural predators. Birds, spiders, and even other insects prey on Blue Moon Butterflies, especially in the larval stage.

Although predation is a natural aspect of ecosystems, when combined with the aforementioned factors, it can lead to a significant population decline.

These threats together pose a serious risk to the survival of the Blue Moon Butterfly population.

Conservation efforts, ranging from habitat preservation to the reduction of pesticide use, are vital to ensure the continued existence of these fascinating creatures.


In essence, the fascinating Blue Moon Butterfly captivates with its distinctive coloration, intriguing life cycle and remarkable behavior.

Understanding and preserving this creature is integral to our biodiversity.

Please feel free to share your thoughts or questions about the Blue Moon Butterfly in the comment section.

Butterflies   Updated: September 20, 2023
avatar Welcome to Insectic, a blog to learn about insects and bugs. I'm Richard, and I've created this website to share my experience, knowledge, and passion with others.

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